[Author’s Note: The following represents a brief excerpt from my earlier work, “Tryambaka Triophthalmos Triformis – The Three Eyes Of The Indo-European Sky Father As Seen Through Vedic & Hellenic Perspective”. I present it for our Friday Evening Devotional (A)Arti-cle – in part because a more directly focused piece is still presently ‘in the works’ for Her. [-C.A.R.] ]
The association of the Goddess with these Three Realms is not exclusive to the Vedic understanding, either – with the Serpent, Dove, and Dolphin triple-symbol of Greek Demeter similarly representation Her Dominion over Earth, Air, and Sea [see my various previous works looking at Demeter for more upon this oft-less well understood Goddess, especially in Her proper Indo-European context]; and in Hesiod’s Theogony, the eminent Anatolian-Greek theologian in question places significant emphasis upon the irreducible linkage of Hekate to Earth, Sea, and Heaven. I declare that it is “irreducible”, because that is, effectively, as Hesiod himself places it – stating that the dominion in question was in place “from the beginning”, and unaltered by Zeus (Who, it is noted, holds Her in most highest regard – resonant with the manner in which Aditi Vak Saraswati is hailed as the Goddess of Gods in the Vedic realm … and later, especially Shakta, scriptural canon of ours).
It would also be quite plausible, I suspect, to link in the Roman concept of the Diva Triformis – the Triple-Form Goddess. This is a complex figure, and a full consideration of Her is perhaps beyond the sufficient scope of this piece; however suffice to say that “Diana” is etymologically a female rendering of the same “Shining / Heavenly” Indo-European root which informs “Dyaus”, “Jupiter”, “Zeus”, etc. [compare Dion & Dione in Ancient Greek]. This is plausibly similar also to what we find expressed in the “Ju-” of “Juno” relative to “Jupiter”, and the “De-” of “Demeter” per my speculative re-interpretation of the linguistics of the figure in Light of the underlying comparative theology; Hera, too, should likely fit into this schema, albeit with a more synonymic approach to producing the ‘(Day)Light’ element to the theonym (see my recent work – “Hera As Indo-European Goddess – A Preliminary Investigation”). The common thread of male and female counterpart deifics having strongly resemblant names bearing the same core elemental theme is also well attested – Varuna & Varuni, Rudra & Rudrani, Kaal & Kali, Bhairava & Bhairavi, for instance; or, in Old Norse – Fjörgyn and Fjörgynn.
To bring things back to Diana Herselves – the understanding being communicated via the Diva Triformis conceptry is one of a multilayered multifacity, just as we should expect via the dual notions of the Three Eyes (wherein the same Eyes are at once, Radiances and also Planes/Worlds). There is, therefore, no inherent contradiction between those Classical authors who ascribed the identity and essences of the Diva Triformis upon the basis of what we might term the Tri-Loka (Three Worlds) (i.e. ‘planetological’) model; and those who instead appeared to approach the Goddess more via the Tri-Lochana (Three Illuminators) understanding.
To illustrate that which I mean by this – there are multiple figures and figurative understandings for this Diva Triformis schema. Some held that the correct trio was Diana on Earth, Luna in the Sky, and Proserpine in the Underworld. Others instead had the schema as being Hekate in the Underworld (which is interesting as – strictly speaking – Hekate should be a Solar Goddess per the original Anatolian IE conceptry as well as the direct correlate elements with Vedic Aditi – more upon this in a moment). These two perspectives are broadly correlate as the Tri-Loka model – each Goddess-facing is identified with one of the Three Worlds / Divisions of the Cosmos. Except implicit within the linguistics is the other model – the Tri-Lochana model of the Three Radiances, Three Illuminators, Three Celestial Bodies.
By which I mean – Diana is not, per the linguistics, “On Earth” … but rather, “Illuminating the Earth” as the Daytime Sky – the Sun, in just the same manner as Dyaus and Dyaus’ Solar Eye. Luna (Selene), meanwhile, is in the Sky, most certainly – however this is the Night-Time Sky; illuminating the Night just as the Moon does – the Lunar Eye of the Sky Father. And as for Persephone and/or Hekate ? Well, this is the “Underworld Sun” – or, as it happens, the far removed Highest (Outer) Heaven where the Realm of the Glorious/Ancestral Dead is to be found. This comes directly under the Reign of Aditi in the Vedic sphere (in addition to, of course, Varuna (the Sky Father – as is Hades , Dis Pater) and Lord Yama (Remus, in the Romanic conceptry)), with the Night both Gulf and Veil between the Daylit Realm of the Living Earth and the Ultra-Solar realm in question.
Said Highest Heaven, of course, is quite directly proximate to The Waters in the Vedic understanding – indeed, per one’s reading of RV X 125 [the famed Devi Sukta], the position of Devi Aditi is within/beyond these Waters (as liminal sphere of the Universe), breathing Life into our universe from the World’s Summit where the Realm of the (Fore)Father(s) is to be found. I have previously explored in quite some other works the process of ‘derivation” whereby the Sky Afterlife/Underworld of the more archaic Indo-European cosmology has ‘migrated’ to be an Underworld beneath the Earth’s surface and our feet [‘Patala-Loka’]; as well as the corresponding ‘shift’ whereby the Sea of Stars and Ocean of Suns has similarly ‘descended’ to become moored (indeed, meer’ed – and this is a double-service PIE pun due to the relevant ‘Mer’ and ‘Mer’ meaning ‘To Die’ (or Disappear) and Sea / Body of Water, respectively) in the more terrestrial oceans of our world. Hence the otherwise quite curious conceptry of the Sun and Solar Energy coming from the Sea still being somewhat preserved via the Horse association of Poseidon – despite this making less sense if the Seas are felt to be around one and on roughly similar level to the land , as compared to the more archaic situation of the Sea up in the Sky (which also more sensibly renders the Solar expression into our universe as being congealed emanation of the Absolute, the Undivided – Brahman Aditi; as with the Vajra and Soma for exactly the same reasoning … but more upon those points can be found in my other works).
Hence, even though the astute reader may have mentally noted that there is no overt ‘Sea’ division in the Diva Triformis conceptry – this does not mean that there lacks an implicit point of resonancy therein for same.
And thus, we may also handily reconcile two otherwise rather difficult and different ‘Three Worlds’ conceptual-cosmological schemas – the predominant Greek division of Heavens, Underworld, Sea ; and the major archaic Vedic ‘Three Worlds’ understanding of the Earth, Mid-Atmosphere, and (Higher) Heavens. Although as we have earlier demonstrated via the citation for RV X 63 2 – the Vedic Rsis were also quite well acquainted with an alternative Tri-Loka of the Earth, the Heavens, and the Waters.